2001), has also been verified among the Brazilian counterparts. There, among other names, these birds have been called churrín de vientre rayado (bar-bellied tapaculo) by some authors (e.g. speluncae, including in Rio Grande do Sul (Belton 1985, Ridgely and Tudor 1994). In the wake of land speculators, colonists and sawmills flooding the region, habitat destruction has exploded and, as we finish this paper in December 2003, the Environment Ministry has announced deforestation in the central area of BR 163 went up 511% compared to 2003 (Angelo and Amorim 2004).

For instance, Sick (1958) had doubts to which species S. speluncae he would allocate his new subspecies novacapitalis; although first allocated to the former, it was later (Sick 1960) recognized as a full species, forming a superspecies with S. More recently, other problems concerning the taxonomy of Brazilian Scytalopus have arisen: there have been doubts about the validity of S. 1995, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997) and the applicability of the name S. Navas and Bo 1977, Straneck 1990), which further suggests a constancy in the barring pattern over the posterior underparts in that population. This scenario clearly indicated that at least the southern populations traditionally ascribed to S. In this paper, the plumage and vocal patterns of some Scytalopus populations traditionally identified as S. Under this scenario, it is expected that 30 years after the paving of BR 163 a 100 km belt along the road will be turned into anthropic habitats, and the remaining forests beyond will be heavily damaged by logging (see Laurance et al. Considering the general lack of government control in the region, where a wild west mentality prevails, and the unwillingness of successive federal administrations in both follow and impose the environmental legislation, the odds are that the Rondônia pattern will be repeated in southern Pará.

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when the inter-note intervals become increasingly shorter before stabilizing in the accelerated end). Lucena (eds) Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes.

For measurements of pace, the notes of the beginning of songs, which may be delivered in a distinct pace, were not considered.

1429, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 2 Grupo Especial de Estudo e Proteção do Ambiente Aquático do Rio Grande do Sul GEEPAA-RS, Rua Tiradentes, 2247, CEP , Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The ombrophylous forests found farther north, with a large number of species, are under intensive pressure from logging companies and the activity is carried wherever there is a road a truck can pass. (2004) Species poor but distinct: bird assemblages in white sand vegetation in Jaú National Park, Brazilian Amazon.

Pesquisas em campo e em museus revelaram que populações tradicionalmente identificadas como Scytalopus speluncae no sul do Brasil e na província de Misiones, Argentina, representam uma espécie não descrita, que é aqui nomeada e caracterizada. speluncae, quanto à plumagem do macho, pela presença constante em qualquer idade de ampla área acanelada nos flancos marcada por conspícuo barramento negro (vs. A nova espécie ocorre em três áreas distintas: Serra do Sudeste (sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Provícia argentina de Misiones e áreas adjacentes do Brasil e partes mais altas do Planalto do nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul e sudeste de Santa Catarina. Field and museum studies showed that male plumage differs from traditional S. speluncae by its slower paced song ( notes/ s vs notes/s), by having two types of calls that differ in general structure and note shape from the calls of S. novacapitalis and populations in Minas Gerais (also possibly new species), suggesting that these species are more closely related to each other than to any other species in the genus. At least 37 species are presently recognized, the great majority being confined to the Andes and related orographic systems while some others are endemic to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997, 2003, Sick 1997). Sclater 1890, Cory and Hellmayr 1924), the original description (Ménétriès 1835), and some recent field guides and manuals (e.g. Despite its importance, the region between the Tapajós and the ingu rivers has not a single strictly protected area.

It has been documented that vocal differences are positively correlated with genetic distinctions in Scytalopus (Arctander and Fjeldså 1994, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997).

For this study, it is assumed that vocalizations are entirely inherited in this genus, and as such, provide potentially highly informative characters for systematic and taxonomic study. Vocalizations were recorded in the field with a Sony TCM 5000EV tape-recorder and a Sennheiser ME 66 microphone. Tape-recordings will be deposited at the Arquivo Sonoro Prof. Recently, in the Serra do Sudeste region, southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the author and Rafael A. speluncae occurring elsewhere in the Atlantic forest region. speluncae are analyzed and, as a result, a new species is herein proposed. An ambitious plan to avoid that by creating protected areas, land zoning, solving land-tenure issues and other activities is being developed by the federal government to avoid the foreseen catastrophe. Dias found a population that matched the description of the Misiones birds and noticed that this population had a slower-paced song (i.e. Furthermore, remarks on the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of the entire S. METHODS Some plumage patterns within Scytalopus, such as the barring on the flanks, are present in younger birds (juveniles, immatures, and subadults) of virtually all members of the genus, disappearing in full adults of several species, but being present in all ages of others (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Whitney 1994, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997). Whether it will ever work (or even be implemented) remains to be seen but so far the results are not encouraging. (2001) list several candidate sites for protected areas in the Tapajós-ingu interfluvium, including the Serra do Cachimbo, where a military base is now the best guarantee of conservation. Although field work specifically oriented to study these populations began only in early 2001, data collection dates from early March 1994, when the population of southern Rio Grande do Sul was discovered. Roos (eds.) Ornitologia e Conservação: da ciência às estratégias. Post-script (20 June 2005): Data released by the Brazilian Environment Ministry in May 2005 show 26,130 km 2 of forest were destroyed in the Amazon in , the second worse year in history.