Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and the Ce BIT.

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Her descendants, however, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently also Electoral Princes of Hanover.

In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates.

The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance.

From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover.

During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757.

), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become a Kingdom with Hanover as its capital.

In 1837, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended because William IV's heir in the United Kingdom was female (Queen Victoria). Thus, Hanover passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus, and remained a kingdom until 1866, when it was annexed by Prussia during the Austro-Prussian war.

Despite Hanover being expected to defeat Prussia at the Battle of Langensalza, Prussia employed Moltke the Elder's Kesselschlacht order of battle to instead destroy the Hanoverian army.

During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1714–1837), the monarchs rarely visited the city.